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# Calculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic ©2007

Ross L. Finney, Franklin D. Demana, Bert K. Waits, Daniel Kennedy

## Calculus AB

SE = Student Edition
TE = Teacher Edition

## I. FUNCTIONS, GRAPHS, AND LIMITS

 Analysis of graphs. With the aid of technology, graphs of functions are often easy to produce. The emphasis is on the interplay between the geometric and analytic information and on the use of calculus both to predict and to explain the observed local and global behavior of a function. SE/TE: 16, 17, 19, 20, 25, 28, 40, 43–45, 49, 52, 53 Limits of functions (including one-sided limits) —An intuitive understanding of the limiting process. SE/TE: 59, 60, 66, 64, 66, 77 —Calculating limits using algebra. SE/TE: 62, 63, 66, 76 —Estimating limits from graphs or tables of data. SE/TE: 63, 64, 66, 67, 68 Asymptotic and unbounded behavior —Understanding asymptotes in terms of graphical behavior SE/TE: 70–71, 73, 76 —Describing asymptotic behavior in terms of limits involving infinity SE/TE: 73, 76 —Comparing relative magnitudes of functions and their rates of change. (For example, contrasting exponential growth, polynomial growth, and logarithmic growth) SE/TE: 454, 455, 457, 458 Continuity as a property of functions —An intuitive understanding of continuity. (Close values of the domain lead to close values of the range.) SE/TE: 81, 85 —Understanding continuity in terms of limits SE/TE: 78, 79, 84, 85 —Geometric understanding of graphs of continuous functions (Intermediate Value Theorem and Extreme Value Theorem) SE/TE: 83, 85, 187, 188, 193

## II. DERIVATIVES

 Concept of the derivative —Derivative presented graphically, numerically, and analytically SE/TE: 102–104, 107, 108, 183 —Derivative interpreted as an instantaneous rate of change SE/TE: 91, 93, 127, 129, 135 —Derivative defined as the limit of the different quotient SE/TE: 90, 99, 100, 104, 105 —Relationship between differentiability and continuity SE/TE: 110, 113–115 Derivative at a point —Slope of a curve at a point. Examples are emphasized, including points at which there are vertical tangents and points at which there are no tangents. SE/TE: 90, 92, 93, 118, 124, 182 —Tangent line to a curve at a point and local linear approximation SE/TE: 233, 234, 242 —Instantaneous rate of change as the limit of average rate of change SE/TE: 91, 93, 127, 135 —Approximate rate of change from graphs and tables of values SE/TE: 93, 129, 135 Derivative as a function —Corresponding characteristics of graphs of f and f′ SE/TE: 101, 102, 106, 182, 206, 207 —Relationship between the increasing and decreasing behavior of f and the sign of f′ SE/TE: 199, 202, 203, 209 —The Mean Value Theorem and its geometric consequences SE/TE: 196–198, 202, 204 —Equations involving derivatives. Verbal descriptions are translated into equations involving derivatives and vice versa SE/TE: 107, 130, 140, 153, 248 Second derivatives —Corresponding characteristics of the graphs of f, f′, and f″ SE/TE: 209, 210, 216, 217, 257 —Relationship between the concavity of f and the sign of f″ SE/TE: 208, 215, 218 —Points of inflection as places where concavity changes SE/TE: 208, 209, 214, 215, 217 Applications of derivatives —Analysis of curves, including the notions of monotonicity and concavity SE/TE: 199, 202, 203, 209, 210, 214, 217, 260 —Optimization, both absolute (global) and relative (local) extrema SE/TE: 221, 222, 224–227 —Modeling rates of change, including related rates problems SE/TE: 247, 249–251 —Use of implicit differentiation to find the derivative of an inverse function. SE/TE: 167, 170, 174, 178, 184 —Interpretation of the derivative as a rate of change in varied applied contexts, including velocity, speed, and acceleration SE/TE: 130–132, 134, 136–139 —Geometric interpretation of differential equations via slope fields and the relationship between slope fields and solution curves for differential equations SE/TE: 323–325, 328, 330 Computation of derivatives —Knowledge of derivatives of basic functions, including power, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions SE/TE: 143, 144, 146, 170, 173, 178 —Basic rules for the derivative of sums, products, and quotients of functions. SE/TE: 118, 120, 121, 124 —Chain rule and implicit differentiation SE/TE: 149, 153, 158, 160, 162

## III. INTEGRALS

 Interpretations and properties of definite integrals —Computation of Riemann sums using left, right, and midpoint evaluation points SE/TE: 265, 266, 270–273, 315–317 —Definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums over equal subdivisions SE/TE: 277, 278, 282, 283, 316 —Definite integral of the rate of change of a quantity over an interval interpreted as the change of the quantity over the interval: f′(x)dx = f(b) – f(a) SE/TE: 149, 153, 158, 162, 160 —Basic properties of definite integrals. (Examples include additivity and linearity.) SE/TE: 286, 290, 291, 293 Applications of integrals. Appropriate integrals are used in a variety of applications to model physical, biological, or economic situations. Although only a sampling of applications can be included in any specific course, students should be able to adapt their knowledge and techniques to solve other similar application problems. Whatever applications are chosen, the emphasis is on using the integral of a rate up an approximating Riemann sum and representing its limit as a definite integral. To provide a common foundation, specific applications should include finding the area of a region, the volume of a solid with known cross sections, the average value of a function, and the distance traveled by a particle along a line. SE/TE: 386, 387, 396, 397, 406, 407, 416, 417, 425–427 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus —Use of the Fundamental Theorem to evaluate definite integrals SE/TE: 295, 296, 300, 302, 303 —Use of the Fundamental Theorem to represent a particular antiderivative, and the analytical and graphical analysis of functions so defined. SE/TE: 297, 300–303 Techniques of antidifferentiation —Antiderivatives following directly from derivatives of basic functions SE/TE: 331, 337, 332, 337 —Antiderivatives by substitution of variables (including change of limits for definite integrals) SE/TE: 333–338 Applications of antidifferentiation —Finding specific antiderivatives using initial conditions, including applications to motion along a line SE/TE: 321, 322, 327, 379–383, 386 —Solving separable differential equations and using them in modeling. In particular, studying the equation y′ = ky and exponential growth. SE/TE: 350, 354, 355–358 —Numerical approximation to definite integrals. Use of Riemann and trapezoid sums to approximate definite integrals of functions represented algebraically, graphically, and by tables of values. SE/TE: 278, 283, 307, 308, 312, 313

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