Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, 8th Edition ©2002

X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia

Correlated with AP® English Literature and Composition, 2003–2004

Criteria for these correlations are based in part on the College Board's Advanced Placement® Course Description, English Language and Composition, English Literature and Composition, 2003–2004. Parenthetical reference to this document includes "CB" [College Board] and the relevant page number(s). Criteria for Section II are based also on best practices in the literature and writing classroom.

I. The Literature


Kennedy and Gioia include 60 pieces of short fiction, including a long short story—James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" (39)—and a short novel—Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" (345). The textbook provides 28 stories in a ten-chapter section (3–493) examining the various facets of fiction—followed by 20 stories in a chapter entitled "Stories for Further Reading" (494–735).

Quality of Selections (CB 45)
The College Board provides a list of fiction authors (50) to "suggest the possible range and quality of reading" (49) in an AP® course. Of the 63 authors on this list, 27 appear among Kennedy and Gioia's practitioners of fiction:

Chinua Achebe (494), James Baldwin (39), Raymond Carver (448), Willa Cather (535), John Cheever (550), Kate Chopin (110), Sandra Cisneros (575), Stephen Crane (197 & 981), Ralph Ellison (577), William Faulkner (28 & 162), F. Scott Fitzgerald (216), Gabriel García Márquez (588), Nathaniel Hawthorne (606), Ernest Hemingway (158 & 192), Zora Neal Hurston (621), Kazuo Ishiguro (631), James Joyce (639), D.H. Lawrence (645, 746, 1017), Bernard Malamud (657), Katherine Mansfield (665), Bobbie Ann Mason (669), Flannery O'Connor (390, 405, 416), Katherine Anne Porter (80), Leo Tolstoy (304), John Updike (14), Alice Walker (88), and Eudora Welty (63).

The College Board's list is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive. This textbook includes numerous other fiction writers of "comparable literary merit" (a College Board term which encourages teachers and students to read not only widely but well). Among them: John Steinbeck (245), Shirley Jackson (254), Alice Munro (680), and Tillie Olsen (725)—as well as each of the authors cited under the remaining fiction topics below.

Emphasis on works written in English, with representative British and American authors (CB 42)
Although Kennedy and Gioia include a predominance of American authors, their text includes classic British short story writers such as James Joyce (639), D.H. Lawrence (645, 746, 1017), and W. Somerset Maugham (4). Americans include Poe (35), Hemingway (158 & 192), Faulkner (28 & 162), and Vonnegut (233), as well as more recent practitioners of the craft, such as T. Coraghessan Boyle (128), Jamaica Kincaid (644), and Tim O'Brien (706). For Chapter 10, "A Writer in Depth" (387–446), the editors include two stories by Flannery O'Connor, as well as two short nonfiction pieces in which O'Connor reflects on her craft.

Inclusion of representative periods and literary movements—16th–20th century (CB 42)
The editors concentrate on 19th– and 20th–century stories, as befits the genre. From the morbid Romanticism of Poe ("The Tell-Tale Heart," 35) to the clean, curt realism pioneered by Hemingway ("A Clean, Well-Lighted Place," 158); from the matter-of-fact absurdism of Kafka ("The Metamorphosis," 345) to the convoluted modernism of Faulkner ("A Rose for Emily," 28, and "Barn Burning," 162)—the anthology offers a wide variety of choices for the AP® teacher and student.

Authorial diversity: geographic, cultural, ethnic, stylistic, gender (CB 42)
Kennedy and Gioia include stories as distant from us as a tale from the Chou Dynasty, of the 4th century B.C. (6), and the New Testament's "Parable of the Prodigal Son" (232). To appreciate the diversity of the fiction offerings, consider the following authors: Isaac Bashevis Singer (95), Amy Tan (136), Guy de Maupassant (177), Jorge Luis Borges (521), James Baldwin (39), Chinua Achebe (494), Sandra Cisneros (575), Ralph Ellison (577), Gabriel García Márquez (588), Langston Hughes (617), Jamaica Kincaid (644), and Leslie Marmon Silko (732).


Of this book's roughly 2220 pages, Kennedy and Gioia devote 2090 to literature, 549 of which the editors allot to poetry (737–1286). The poetry section comprises 19 chapters, with numerous offerings to illustrate each chapter title. Chapter 16, for example (832–854), entitled "Imagery," includes 37 widely varied poems to illustrate the uses of imagery. As with the fiction section, the authors close the poetry offerings with a chapter on "Poems for Further Reading" (1158–1286); this chapter offers 138 poems by 104 poets.

Quality of Selections (CB 44)
The College Board provides a list of poets (49) to "indicate the possible range and quality of reading" (42) in an AP® course. Of the 45 poets on this list, 38 appear among Kennedy and Gioia's poets:

W.H. Auden (773, 893, 966), Elizabeth Bishop (835, 969, 1099, 1168), William Blake (779, 820, 861, 898, 1170–1171), Anne Bradstreet (759), Gwendolyn Brooks (823, 930, 1173–1174), Robert Browning (751, 1175), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1179), H.D. (844, 874, 1019), Emily Dickinson (761, 838, 860, 863, 1085, 1118–1124), John Donne (795, 954, 1182–1184), Rita Dove (1185), T.S. Eliot (834, 921, 1188, 1187), Robert Frost (750, 826, 872–873, 917, 960, 1004, 1016, 1030, 1193, 1195–1196), Seamus Heany (1204–1205), George Herbert (870, 987, 1003, 1208), Gerard Manley Hopkins (839, 916, 1209–1211), Langston Hughes (944, 1137–1143), Ben Jonson (880, 931, 1214), John Keats (842, 951, 1215–1217), Philip Larkin (1060, 1219–1220), Robert Lowell (1223), Andrew Marvell (1225), John Milton (1229), Marianne Moore (792, 1230), Sylvia Plath (861, 1044, 1239), Edgar Allan Poe (1107, 1241), Alexander Pope (431, 964, 1242), Adrienne Rich (747, 1056, 1246–1247), William Shakespeare (856, 884, 920, 958, 1097, 1252–1254), Percy Bysshe Shelley (1096), Cathy Song (1260), Alfred, Lord Tennyson (861, 827, 856, 909, 930, 1266), Derek Walcott (1273), Walt Whitman (760, 843, 943, 981, 1100, 1274–1275), Richard Wilbur (828, 1276), William Carlos Williams (771, 791, 943, 979, 1008, 1277, 1278), William Wordsworth (767, 812, 906, 1018, 1280), and William Butler Yeats (743, 904, 915, 1011, 1022, 1094, 1285–1286).

As a further service to both students and teachers, the editors devote Chapter 31 to "Lives of the Poets" (1287–1315), which includes 67 thumbnail sketches on poets of "recognized literary merit."

Emphasis on works written in English, with representative British and American authors (CB 42)
As with the fiction selections, American poets predominate here. In Chapter 28, for example—"Two Poets in Depth" (1117–1157)— Kennedy and Gioia anthologize 15 poems (1118–1124) by Emily Dickinson, a 19th–century American woman with international stature in the world of poetry today. The Dickinson selections are complemented by 15 poems (1137–1144) from Langston Hughes, a pre-eminent 20th–century African American whose reputation today far exceeds the Harlem Renaissance that initially made him famous.

The editors include the great names in British poetry, among them Shakespeare, Donne, Milton, Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, and Auden (pages listed above, under "Quality of Selections").

Inclusion of representative periods and literary movements—16th–20th century (CB 42)
The anthologized poets represent a wide variety of periods and styles—from the Metaphysical poetry of 17th–century masters such as Donne and Marvell, to Romantic selections by Coleridge, Wordsworth, Keats, and others, to typical Victorian poems by Tennyson and Matthew Arnold (1162), to Confessional masters such as Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton (770, 1031) and beyond, to include such recent voices as Margaret Atwood (510, 870, 1164) and Louise Erdrich (1192). (Unless otherwise noted, pages are listed above, under "Quality of Selections.")

With chapters on "Closed Form" (949–973) and "Open Form (974–996), the editors present poetry in a wide range of forms, as befits an AP® course. Finally—with chapters such as "Imagery" (832–854), "Figures of Speech" (855–878), "Song" (879–900), "Sound" (901–924), "Rhythm" (925–948), and "Symbol" (997–1013)—this textbook allows the AP® teacher and student to examine poetry in its many facets.

Authorial diversity: geographic, cultural, ethnic, stylistic, gender (CB 42)
In addition to African Americans Gwendolyn Brooks and Langtston Hughes (listed above among the College Board's cannon), Kennedy and Gioia also include Countee Cullen (759), Jean Toomer (838), Rita Dove (1185), and Lucille Clifton (992). As further evidence of diversity, consider the following poets: José Emilio Pacheco (780), N. Scott Momaday (862), and Naomi Shihab Nye (1235). The poetry section includes haiku from 16th– to 18th–century Japanese masters Arakida Moritaku (840), Matsuo Basho (841), Taniguchi Buson (832, 841), and Kobayashi Issa (841). Acknowledging the role of song in poetry, the editors include Paul Simon (886) and Bessie Smith (893), as well as the famous duo John Lennon and Paul McCartney (894). Consider also Chapter 25, "Poetry and Personal Identity" (1043–1064), which includes sections on "Culture, Race, and Ethnicity" (1048–1053), as well as "Gender" (1054–1056). Under "Culture, Race, and Ethnicity," the editors include appropriate poems by Claude McKay (1048), Samuel Menashe (1051), Francisco X. Alarcón (1051), Wendy Rose (1052), and Yusef Komunyakaa (1053). Under "Gender," find titles by Anne Stevenson (1054), Donald Justice (1056), and Adrienne Rich (1056).


Kennedy and Gioia include 17 complete plays: five one-act plays and 13 full-length dramas.

Quality of Selections (CB 44)
The College Board provides a list of dramatists (44) to "suggest the possible range and quality of reading" (44) in an AP® course. Of the 28 authors on this list, 9 appear among Kennedy and Gioia's offerings here:

Samuel Beckett, Krapp's Last Tape (1858–1865)
David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice (2003–2017)
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (1765–1821)
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman (1877–1948)
William Shakespeare, Othello (1469–1566), Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1569–1680), Midsummer's Night Dream (1683–1739)
Sophocles, Oedipus the King (1382–1423), Antigone (1425–1455)
Tom Stoppard, The Real Inspector Hound (1826–1856)
Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie (1951–2000)
August Wilson, Joe Turner's Come and Gone (2038–2087)

Ibsen, Miller, Sophocles, Shakespeare, and Williams appear regularly on the AP® Exam in English Literature and Composition—on the Open Question. One of three essays featured yearly on the exam, the Open Question presents a phenomenon characteristic of numerous great works of literature, with a prompt directing the examinee to write an essay using a single work to illuminate the phenomenon in question. The question usually includes a list of appropriate works, along with the proviso that examinees may choose another work of comparable literary merit. That Ibsen, Miller, Sophocles, Shakespeare, and Williams appear frequently on this list attests to the issue here of "recognized literary merit."

Emphasis on works written in English, with representative British and American authors (CB 42)

Inclusion of representative periods and literary movements—16th–20th century (CB 42)
Since drama originates with the ancient Greeks and since AP® courses pay homage to the roots of drama, it is fitting that Kennedy and Gioia examine the drama in three stages—with Sophocles representing Classical drama, Shakespeare representing Renaissance drama, and Ibsen representing Modern drama. Then, in "Plays for Further Reading" (1876–2002), the editors emphasize American playwrights: Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, and August Wilson (page numbers listed above, under "Quality of Selections").

Authorial diversity: geographic, cultural, ethnic, stylistic, gender (CB 42)
With the nine full-length works, Kennedy and Gioia do an admirable job of addressing the diversity inherent in this genre—including Ancient Greece, Renaissance England, late 19th–century Norway, and 20th–century America, with the American choices giving a nod to both Southern and African American playwrights. With the one-act plays, the editors include Susan Glaspell (1323), Garrison Keillor (1361), Milcha Sanchez-Scott (2023), and David Henry Hwang (2003)—further evidence of their concern with the many faces of drama.


Since AP® literature courses—much like introductory literature courses at the college level—focus on fiction, poetry, and drama, Kennedy and Gioia do the same. Their textbook does not include a separate section devoted to the study of nonfiction/the essay. Recognizing, however, the importance of nonfiction literary criticism, the editors include nonfiction snippets throughout—excerpts from essays and longer pieces, as well as from interviews. The fiction section has nine nonfiction pieces; the poetry section includes 17; the drama section has nine. Of equal importance to AP® teachers and students, the editors include a chapter on "Critical Approaches" (2168–2216), printing 30 nonfiction excerpts to illustrate 10 approaches to literary criticism.

Quality of Selections (CB 45)
The list of authors of the nonfiction excerpts referenced above reads like a who's who of literary greats:

About fiction:
John Updike (19), Isaac Bashevis Singer (106), Amy Tan (151), Ernest Hemingway (192), Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (240), Ursula K. LeGuin (273), Franz Kafka (379), and Flannery O'Connor (432 & 435).

About poetry:
Adrienne Rich (754), Wilfred Owen (784), Lewis Carroll (815), Richard Wilbur (829), Ezra Pound (847), Robert Frost (876), Paul McCartney (899), T.S. Eliot (922), Gwendolyn Broks (946), Robert Graves (971), Walt Whitman (944), William Butler Yeats (1011), Anne Sexton (1035), Julia Alvarez (1062), Edgar Allan Poe (1109), Emily Dickinson (1125), and Langston Hughes (1145).

About drama:
Susan Glaspel (1367), Aristotle (1457), W.H. Auden (1748), George Bernard Shaw (1822), Milcha Sanchez-Scott (2037), David Henry Hwang (2018), Arthur Miller (1948), Tennessee Williams (2000), and August Wilson (2087).

Representing the approaches to Literary Criticism:
Cleanth Brooks (2187), Michael Clark (2171), Brett C. Millier (2177), Darryl Pinckney (1152), Sigmund Freud (1458), Daniel Hoffman (2187), Northrop Frye (2191), Maud Bodkin (1749), Georg Lukacs (2195), Daniel P. Watkins (2196), Elaine Showalter (2199), Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar (2201), Stanley Fish (2203), Robert Scholes (2204), Roland Barthes (2208), Geoffrey Hartman (2210), Vincent B. Leitch (2214), and Mark Bauerlein (2215).

Emphasis on works written in English, with representative British and American authors (CB 42)

Inclusion of representative periods and literary movements—16th–20th century (CB 42)

Authorial diversity: geographic, cultural, ethnic, stylistic, gender (CB 42)

Nonfiction choices are reflective of the fiction, poetry, and drama they accompany.

II. Support materials for instruction in reading and writing

Organization and sequencing of contents: to support instruction in "the experience of literature, the interpretation of literature, and the evaluation of literature" (CB 42)
The three major sections devoted to literature—fiction, poetry, and drama—proceed from basic approaches to reading/experiencing a piece of literature, to analyzing discrete elements of the genre in question, and finally to evaluation.

The fiction section begins with "Reading a Story" (3–21), followed by six chapters devoted to discrete analysis of "Point of View" (22–76), "Character" (77–108), "Setting" (109–153), "Tone and Style" (154–194), "Theme" (195–241), and "Symbol" (243–278), and "Evaluating a Story" (279–297)—followed by a chapter on "Reading Long Stories and Novels" (298–388). The final chapter, "Two Critical Casebooks: Flannery O'Connor and Raymond Carver," provides three stories from each author along with criticism of each of them.

The poetry section begins with "Reading a Poem" (741–756), followed by 18 chapters devoted to analysis of elements such as "Imagery" (832–854), "Figures of Speech" (855–878), "Sound" (901–924), and "Symbol" (997–1013)—leading up to a chapter on "Recognizing Excellence" (1082–1111). An interesting chapter in this section is entitled "Translation" (1065–1081). It includes poems from international authors such as Li Po (1068–1069) and Octavio Paz (1070). In the chapter "What Is Poetry?" (1112–1116), various poets such as Elizabeth Bishop, Jorge Luis Borges, T.S. Eliot, and Emily Dickinson give their definitions of poetry (1113–1114).

The drama section begins with "Reading a Play" (1321–1374), followed by chapters devoted to analysis of three major plays—Ancient Greek (1375–1465), British Renaissance (1466–1761), and Modern European (1762–1871)—followed by a chapter on "Evaluating a Play" (1872–2002). The chapter "Critical Casebook: Sophocles" (1375–1465) includes critics such as Aristotle (1457) and Sigmund Freud (1458) on Sophocles. The chapter "Critical Casebook: Shakespeare" (1466–1761) includes commentary by Shakespeare's colleague Ben Jonson (1742) and criticism on Shakespeare by A.C. Bradley (1743), W.H. Auden (1478), and others. A chapter called "New Voices in American Drama" (2003–2087) offers plays and commentaries by David Henry Hwang (2003–2018), Terry McNally (2019–2022), Milcha Sanchez-Scott (2023–2037), and August Wilson (2038–2087).

To provide students with further practice in "the experience of literature, the interpretation of literature, and the evaluation of literature," Kennedy and Gioia culminate each genre section with chapters designed to build on the skills covered thus far. The Fiction section culminates with "Two Critical Casebooks" (389–493) and "Stories for Further Reading" (494–736). Similarly, the Poetry section also closes with "Two Critical Casebooks" (1117–1157) and "Poems for Further Reading" (1158–1286). The Drama section concludes with "Plays for Further Reading" (1876–2002).

Direct instruction in writing in these three modes
Kennedy and Gioia include an entire section on "Writing" (2089–2216), with direct instruction in writing about literature—from the preliminary stages of experiencing literature, through analysis and beyond, to evaluation. This section begins with "Writing About Literature" (2089–2115), a chapter devoted to basic approaches. The editors include three genre chapters—"Writing About a Story" (2116–2133), "Writing About a Poem" (2134–2154), and "Writing About a Play" (2155–2167). Each of these chapters proceeds from direct instruction in explication to direct instruction in analysis.

Writing assignments that direct students in the practice of these three modes
Each chapter of the three genre sections closes with a segment on "Writing Critically." Each segment of "Writing Critically" consists of three parts: the editors' summary of key ideas and further explanation of the literary element explored in the chapter; a "Writing Assignment," with explicit and comprehensive directions for the student; and "Further Suggestions for the Writer," in which the editors suggest several other writing exercises by which the student could practice the skills addressed in the chapter. Writing assignments reflect the sequencing of the textbook—from basic experiences of literature, to analysis of discrete elements of the literature, to evaluation of the literature. The editors enrich the Writing section of the book with more writing assignments; the chapters on writing about fiction, poetry, and drama close with "Suggestions for Writing" (2130 for fiction, 2151 for poetry, 2165 for drama). Each installment of "Suggestions for Writing" includes "Topics for Brief Papers (250–500 words)," "Topics for More Extended Papers (600–1000 words)," and "Topics for Longer Papers (1500 words or more)."

Student-written essays that model these three modes
For each section of the textbook devoted to the study of a genre, the editors include two or three model student essays (275 and 382 for fiction; 785, 849, and 1037 for poetry; 1369, 1756, and 1868 for drama). Each of the student essays falls within the chapter section on "Writing Critically;" each essay follows the editors' writing assignment; each essay models the assignment in question.

In the discrete section on "Writing," Kennedy and Gioia include six model student essays, each incorporated into the editors' commentary on a particular approach to writing. In "Writing About a Story," the student essays illustrate explication (2117) and analysis (2122); in "Writing About a Poem," they illustrate explication (2136), analysis (2142), and comparison/contrast (2145); the single student model in "Writing About a Play" illustrates a drama review (2163).

A discrete writing handbook section suitable for the AP® student
This section of the textbook has been described under the preceding three topics. Of special interest to the AP® teacher and student is Chapter 42, "Critical Approaches to Literature" (2168–2216), in which the editors present two snippets of criticism to illustrate each of ten approaches to literary criticism:

Formalist Criticism (2169–2173), Biographical Criticism (2174–2179), Historical Criticism (2180–2184), Psychological Criticism (2185–2189), Mythological Criticism (2189–2193), Sociological Criticism (2194–2197), Gender Criticism (2198–2201), Reader-Response Criticism (2202–2206), Deconstructionist Criticism (2207–2211), and Cultural Studies (2212–2216).

A glossary and/or index of literary terms
Kennedy and Gioia include a comprehensive, AP®-appropriate index of literary terms—accessible as a double-page spread inside the back cover. The terms themselves are discussed in context, as the editors address the various elements of each genre.

Instruction and support materials for the teaching of research
A section titled "Documenting Your Sources" (2100–2105) informs students how to cite sources in a research paper.

III. Miscellaneous features

Table of contents
The table of contents (iii–xl) showcases the editors' genre approach. By using variations in typeface (boldface, italics, all-caps, varying font sizes) and by using white space judiciously, the editors make the various contents accessible at a rapid glance.

Authors, Critics, and Commentaries reference of names
Instructors and students can quickly find the names of all the literary figures included in the book by glancing at the list on the front endpaper (just inside the cover). This convenient reference is organized alphabetically within sections for fiction, poetry, drama, and criticism and commentary.

The textbook includes an "Index of Major Themes" (I1–I7), an "Index of First Lines of Poetry" (I8–I12), an "Index of Authors and Titles" (I13–I32), and an "Index of Literary Terms" (back endpapers).

Instructor's Manual
Like the textbook itself, the Instructor's Manual is comprised of four major sections: "Fiction" (1–116), "Poetry" (169–424), "Drama" (425–492), and "Writing" (495–514). The manual itself is paginated on the bottom outer page corners; top outer page corners are annotated with the correlating page numbers of the textbook itself. The Instructor's Manual is indexed by author (515–526).

The fiction section begins with a table of "Stories Arranged by Type and Element" (3–8), offering titles in addition to the ones printed with each chapter in the textbook. Kennedy and Gioia offer a second table of "Stories Arranged by Subject and Theme" (9–16), as well as a list of nine "Stories Students Liked Most" (17–18). Thereafter, the fiction section follows the order of the textbook contents, with the editors offering anecdotal commentary and suggestions for each story—to add depth to a prospective teacher's treatment of the story in question and to help the teacher do justice to a story's complexity. Occasionally, in lieu of this approach, the editors offer suggestions for the questions that follow a particular story.

The poetry section begins with a table of "Poems Arranged by Subject and Theme" (169–186), followed by a table of "Poems for Further Reading, Arranged by Elements" (187–194). "Poems Students Like Most" (195–196) includes five "Favorite Poets" and 20 "Favorite Poems." Thereafter, like the fiction section, the poetry section follows the order of the textbook contents, offering additional commentary to enrich the classroom experience of each poem.

The drama section offers commentary on each play included in the textbook, as well as additional questions for discussion or suggestions for the questions included in the textbook.

The writing section includes miscellaneous notes on teaching, backed up by years of teaching experience on the part of the editors.

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