Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 10th Edition ©2009

X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia

Correlated to: AP® English Literature and Composition Exam

Reading in Depth—Fiction

"In their AP course, students read works from several genres and periods—from the sixteenth to the twenty-first century—but, more importantly, they get to know a few works well. They read deliberately and thoroughly, taking time to understand a work's complexity, to absorb its richness of meaning, and to analyze how that meaning is embodied in literary form. In addition to considering a work's literary artistry, students reflect on the social and historical values it embodies. Careful attention to both textual detail and historical context provides a foundation for interpretation, whatever critical perspectives are brought to bear on the literary works studied." AP® English Literature and Composition Course, p. 45.

The most direct way in which this goal is accomplished in the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology is through its several casebooks, in which materials are provided for the in-depth study of individual authors and their works.

Critical Casebook: Flannery O'Connor: 357
Flannery O'Connor, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find": 358
Flannery O'Connor, "Revelation": 368
Flannery O'Connor, "Parker's Back": 382
Flannery O'Connor on Writing: 396, 398, 399, 401
Critics on Flannery O'Connor: 402, 404, 407, 408

Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth: 412
Edgar Allan Poe, "The Tell-Tale Heart": 413
Edgar Allan Poe on Writing: 417, 418 (2)
Critics on "The Tell-Tale Heart": 419, 421, 422
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper": 424
Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing: 435, 436, 437
Critics on "The Yellow Wallpaper": 438, 439, 441
Alice Walker, "Everyday Use": 443
Alice Walker on Writing: 449, 451
Critics on "Everyday Use": 453, 455, 459
Topics for Writing on "The Tell-Tale Heart": 461
Topics for Writing on "The Tellow Wallpaper": 461
Topics for Writing on "Everyday Use": 461

Reading in Depth—Poetry

Two Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes: 1013
Emily Dickinson, 15 poems: 1013–1019
Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson: 1020, 1021
Critics on Emily Dickinson: 1023, 1024, 1025, 1026, 1028
Langston Hughes, 15 poems: 1030–1037
Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes: 1038, 1039
Critics on Langston Hughes: 1041, 1042, 1044, 1045, 1047
Topics for Writing About Emily Dickinson: 1048
Topics for Writing About Langston Hughes: 1048

Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock": 1049
T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock": 1049
Publishing "Prufrock": 1055
The Reviewers on Prufrock: 1058 (3), 1059 (3), 1060
T. S. Eliot on Writing: 1061, 1062 (2)
Critics on "Prufrock": 1064, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1069, 1072
Topics for Writing: 1073

Reading in Depth—Drama

Critical Casebook: Sophocles: 1277
The Theater of Sophocles: 1277
Staging: 1278
The Civic Role of Greek Drama: 1280
Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy: 1282
The Origins of Oedipus the King: 1284
Sophocles, Oedipus the King: 1285
The Background of Antigonê: 1323
Sophocles, Antigonê: 1324
Critics on Sophocles: 1353, 1354, 1355, 1356, 1358 (2)
Robert Fitzgerald, "Translating Sophocles Into English": 1361
Writing About Greek Tragedy: 1362
Writing Assignment on Sophocles: 1362

Critical Casebook: Shakespeare: 1364
The Theater of Shakespeare: 1365
William Shakespeare: 1366
A Note on Othello: 1367
William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice: 1368
The Background of Hamlet: 1470
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: 1472
The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream: 1590
William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream: 1592
Critics on Shakespeare: 1658, 1659, 1660, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1665 (2), 1666, 1667, 1668
Ben Jonson, "On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare": 1669
Writing About Shakespeare: 1670
Student Paper on Othello: 1671


"A generic method for the approach to such close reading involves the following elements: the experience of literature, the interpretation of literature, and the evaluation of literature…. By interpretation, we mean the analysis of literary works through close reading to arrive at an understanding of their multiple meanings…. Writing to understand a literary work may involve writing response and reaction papers, and keeping some form of a reading journal. Writing to explain a literary work involves analysis and interpretation and may include writing brief focused analyses on aspects of language and structure." AP® English Literature and Composition Course, pp. 45–46.

The Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology is Organized with a View to Literary Interpretation.
It is structured according to the principle that the most effective and satisfying way for students to learn to read literature is through an understanding of its modes, strategies, styles, and other elements, and the principal chapters are organized accordingly. Each such chapter concludes with a section in which students are guided—through a comment by a writer whose work is included in the chapter, a summary, a checklists, and writing assignments keyed to the texts in the chapter—in writing effectively about that particular element.

Fiction Writing Effectively: Fiction
Plot: 20–22
Point of View: 70–72
Character: 109–111
Setting: 150–152
Tone and Style: 186–188
Theme: 226–228
Symbol: 253–259
Poetry Writing Effectively: Poetry
Paraphrase: 671–673
Voice: 699–705
Diction: 727–730
Denotation and Connotation: 740–742
Imagery: 758–765
Metaphor: 784–786
Song: 805–807
Sound: 826–828
Rhythm: 847–849
Form and Artifice: 870–872
Free Verse: 891–893
Symbol: 906–908
Myth: 923–932
Personal Identity: 949–952
Parody: 965–967
Drama Writing Effectively: Drama
Conflict: 1241–1248
Comedy: 1274–1276
Tragedy: 1671–1676
Dramatic Realism: 1753–1758
Writing as Discovery: Keeping a Journal: 2166–2171


"By evaluation, we mean both an assessment of the quality and artistic achievement of literary works and a consideration of their social and cultural values." AP® English Literature and Composition Course, p. 45.

Literary Evaluation Is a Primary Emphasis of the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology.
Each of the main sections of Kennedy-Gioia includes a chapter devoted specifically to the issue of evaluation. In the Fiction section, the emphasis is on a sample text. The Poetry chapter provides 16 texts, chosen to illustrate distinctions between good poetry and bad, and between good poetry and great. In the Drama section, guidelines for evaluating dramatic works are given.

Fiction Evaluating a Story: 260
Yiyun Li, "A Thousand Years of Good Prayers": 262
Yiyun Li, "What I Could Not Write About Was Why I Was Writing": 271
Writing an Evaluation: Judging a Story's Value: 272
Checklist: Evaluating a Story: 273
Writing Assignment on Evaluating a Story: 273
More Topics for Writing: 274
Poetry Poetry: Recognizing Excellence: 985
16 poems, with commentary: 987–1006
Edgar Allan Poe, "A Long Poem Does Not Exist": 1007
Writing an Evaluation: You Be the Judge: 1007
Checklist: Evaluating a Poem: 1007
Writing Assignment on Evaluating a Poem: 1008
More Topics for Writing: 1008
Drama Evaluating a Play: 1759
Writing an Evaluation of a Play: Judging a Play: 1760
Checklist: Evaluating a Play: 1761
Writing Assignment on Evaluation: 1761
More Topics for Writing: 1761


"It is important to distinguish among the different kinds of writing produced in an AP English Literature and Composition course. Any college-level course in which serious literature is read and studied includes numerous opportunities for students to write and rewrite." AP® English Literature and Composition Course, p. 47.

Kennedy-Gioia Has an Entire Section Devoted to Teaching the Art of Student Writing.
The last section of the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology, nearly 200 pages in length, is devoted entirely to writing. Its individual chapters provide clear explanations of the various kinds of writing students may be expected to do, along with step-by-step instructions and examples, many of them drawn from actual student papers.

Writing about Literature Reading Actively: 2051
Robert Frost, "Nothing Gold Can Stay": 2052
Planning Your Essay: 2053
Prewriting: Discovering Ideas: 2054
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises: 2054–2057
Developing a Literary Argument: 2058
Writing a Rough Draft: 2060
Sample Student Paper (Rough Draft): 2061
Revising: 2063
Sample Student Paper (Revised Draft): 2069
Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity: 2072
The Form of Your Finished Paper: 2072
Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs: 2073
Writing About a Short Story Reading Actively: 2075
Thinking about a Story: 2077
Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas: 2077
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises: 2077
Writing a First Draft: 2080
What's Your Purpose? Some Common Approaches to Writing about Fiction 2083
Explication: 2083
Sample Student Essay (Explication): 2085
Analysis: 2088
Sample Student Essay (Analysis):2089
Comparison and Contrast: 2095
Sample Student Essay (Comparison and Contrast): 2096
Writing About a Poem Getting Started: 2101
Reading Actively: 2101
Robert Frost, Design: 2102
Thinking About a Poem: 2102
Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas: 2103
Writing a First Draft: 2106
Revising: 2108
Some Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry: 2110
Explication: 2110
Sample Student Essay (Explication): 2111
Analysis: 2115
Sample Student Essay (Analysis): 2116
Comparison and Contrast: 2118
Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread
Sample Student Essay (Comparison and Contrast): 2119
How to Quote a Poem: 2121
Writing About a Play Reading a Play: 2126
Common Approaches to Writing About Drama: 2127
Explication: 2128
Analysis: 2128
Comparison and Contrast: 2128
A Drama Review: 2132
Sample Student Drama Review
How to Quote a Play: 2134
"In addition, some writing assignments should encourage students to write effectively under the time constraints they encounter on essay exams in college courses in many disciplines, including English" (p. 46). Writing an Essay Exam: 2172–2176
"Some of the writing involves research, perhaps negotiating differing critical perspectives" (p. 46). Kennedy-Gioia Has an Extensive, Detailed, Up-to-Date Chapter on Writing a Research Paper.
Also, the concluding chapter delineates ten principal critical approaches to literature, providing for each one an explanation of the approach and three examples from leading literary critics and theorists.
Writing a Research Paper: 2138
Getting Started: 2138
Choosing a Topic: 2139
Finding Research Sources
—Finding Print Resources: 2139
—Using Online Databases: 2140
—Finding Reliable Web Sources: 2140
—Using Visual Images: 2143
Evaluating Sources
—Evaluating Print Resources: 2143
—Evaluating Web Resources: 2144
Organizing Your Research: 2145
Refining Your Thesis: 2147
Organizing Your Paper: 2148
principal critical approaches to literature, providing for each one an explanation of the approach and three examples from leading literary critics and theorists.

Writing and Revising: 2148
Guarding Academic Integrity: 2149
Acknowledging Sources: 2149
—Quoting a Source: 2150
—Citing Ideas: 2150
Documenting Sources Using MLA Style: 2151–2158
Critical Approaches to Literature: 2177
Formalist Criticism: 2178–2182
Biographical Criticism: 2182–2187
Historical Criticism: 2187–2192
Psychological Criticism: 2192–2196
Mythological Criticism: 2196–2200
Sociological Criticism: 2200–2204
Gender Criticism: 2204–2207
Reader-Response Criticism: 2207–2212
Deconstructionist Criticism: 2212–2216
Cultural Studies: 2216–2221

Representative Authors

Fiction Abundant breadth of selections with 66 stories from the classics to contemporary works from around the globe.
Nearly half of the fiction writers listed among the Representative Authors in the AP® English Literature and Composition Course are included in the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology. There are also casebooks devoted to stories by Flannery O'Connor and Alice Walker, as well as to Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart" and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's seminal "The Yellow Wallpaper."

Chinua Achebe, "Dead Men's Path": 462
Margaret Atwood, "Happy Endings": 476; [also: two poems by Atwood]
James Baldwin, "Sonny's Blues": 43; [also: a comment by Baldwin and a critical commentary on the story]
Raymond Carver, "Cathedral": 98; [also: a comment by Carver]
Willa Cather, "Paul's Case": 489
John Cheever, "The Five-Forty-Eight": 503
Kate Chopin, "The Storm": 115; "The Story of an Hour": 523; [also: a critical commentary on "The Storm"]
Sandra Cisneros, "The House on Mango Street": 525
Stephen Crane: "The Open Boat": 191; [also: a poem by Crane]
Ralph Ellison, "Battle Royal": 526
Louise Erdrich [represented by a poem]
William Faulkner, "A Rose for Emily": 28; "Barn Burning": 160; [also: critical commentaries on both stories and a student paper on "A Rose for Emily"]
Gabriel García Márquez, "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World": 526
Thomas Hardy [represented by six poems]
Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Young Goodman Brown": 548; [also: a critical commentary on the story]
Ernest Hemingway, "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place": 156; [also: a comment by Hemingway]
Zora Neale Hurston, "Sweat": 558; [also: a critical essay on the story]
Kazuo Ishiguro, "A Family Supper": 566
James Joyce, "Araby": 573; [also: a poem by Joyce]
D. H. Lawrence, "The Rocking-Horse Winner": 593; [also: two poems by Lawrence and a critical commentary on the story]
Katherine Mansfield, "Miss Brill": 83; [also: a student paper on the story]
Bobbie Ann Mason, "Shiloh": 604
Flannery O'Connor, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find": 358; "Revelation": 368; "Parker's Back" 381; [also: three comments by O'Connor and four critical commentaries on her stories]
Katherine Anne Porter, "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall": 76
Jonathan Swift [represented by a poem]
Leo Tolstoy, "The Death of Ivan Ilych": 280
John Updike, "A & P": 14; [also: three poems (including a translation) and a comment by Updike]
Alice Walker, "Everyday Use": 443; [also: two excerpts from interviews with Walker, two comments by her, and three extensive critical commentaries on the story]
Eudora Welty, "A Worn Path": 64
Poetry Abundance—more than 500 poems representing traditional favorites with new works.
Fully 40 of the 46 poets listed among the Representative Authors in the AP® English Literature and Composition Course are included in the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology; 30 of them appear with multiple selections. A number of the selections are supplemented with commentaries by the poets themselves, and there are casebooks on the poetry of Emily Dickinson and Langston and on T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," which provide the materials for an in-depth study of these authors and works.
W. H. Auden: 690, 799, 865, 999, 1081, 1083
Elizabeth Bishop: 746, 868, 998, 1084
William Blake: 695, 733, 771, 863, 1086, 1087
Anne Bradstreet: 676
Gwendolyn Brooks: 735, 833, 1089, 1090; [also: an excerpt from an interview with Brooks on her best-known poem, "We Real Cool"]
Robert Browning: 668, 1091
Geoffrey Chaucer: 1093
Samuel Taylor Coleridge: 1096
H. D. (Hilda Doolittle): 913; [also: a student paper on H. D.'s poem "Helen"]
Emily Dickinson: 678, 749, 770, 772, 896, 987, 1014 (2), 1015 (2), 1016 (3), 1017 (3), 1018 (2), 1019 (3); [also: a casebook on Dickinson that includes two excerpts from her letters and five biographical and critical commentaries]
John Donne: 709, 854, 1101, 1102 (2)
Rita Dove: 755; [also: Dove's full-length verse play The Darker Face of the Earth]
T. S. Eliot: 745, 825, 826, 895, 1051, 1104; [also: a casebook on "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" that includes a history of the poem's publication, excerpts from seven reviews of the 1917 Prufrock volume, three excerpts from Eliot's critical writings, and seven critical commentaries]
Robert Frost: 667, 737, 780, 782, 822, 859, 901, 911, 1107, 1109, 1110, 2102, 2125; [also: a comment by Frost, as well as an entire chapter, "Writing About a Poem," themed to Frost's "Design" and including several student essays]
Seamus Heaney: 1118
George Herbert: 778, 884, 899, 1121
Gerard Manley Hopkins: 750, 820, 1122, 1123 (2)
Langston Hughes: 846, 863, 1030, 1031 (2), 1032 (2), 1033 (2), 1034 (2), 1035 (2), 1036 (2), 1037 (2); [also: a casebook on Hughes that includes two excerpts from his prose writings and five commentaries on his poetry]
Ben Jonson: 738, 834, 1126
John Keats: 754, 851, 915, 1127, 1129, 1130
Philip Larkin: 948, 1132, 1133
Robert Lowell: 1138
Andrew Marvell: 1139
John Milton: 1141, 1142
Marianne Moore: 708, 1142
Sylvia Plath: 771, 934, 1150
Edgar Allan Poe: 1006, 1153; [also: a casebook on Poe's story "The Tell-Tale Heart" that includes three excerpts from his critical writings and three critical commentaries]
Alexander Pope: 809, 863, 1153
Adrienne Rich: 664, 945, 1157; [also: a comment by Rich on one of her poems]
Anne Sexton: 687, 923; [also: excerpts from two letters by Sexton]
William Shakespeare: 767, 790, 825, 857, 1162, 1163 (2), 1164
Percy Bysshe Shelley: 996
Leslie Marmon Silko [the anthology includes her short story "The Man to Send Rain Clouds"]
Cathy Song: 1168
Alfred, Lord Tennyson: 738, 767, 771, 815, 834, 1173, 1174
Derek Walcott: 1178
Walt Whitman: 677, 754, 845, 879, 1002, 1180, 1181; [also: a comment by Whitman]
Richard Wilbur: 739, 1181; [also: a comment by Wilbur on one of his poems and a critical commentary on Emily Dickinson]
William Carlos Williams: 688, 707, 755, 845, 878, 903, 1183, 1184
William Wordsworth: 685, 812, 912, 1185
William Butler Yeats: 661, 811, 820, 917, 994, 1189, 1190 (2); [also: a comment by Yeats]
Drama Abundance—a total of 18 plays from classic tragedies to contemporary works are included.
Seven of the dramatists listed among the Representative Authors in the AP® English Literature and Composition Course are included in the Kennedy-Gioia Literature Anthology, six of them with one or more full-length plays. Shakespeare (represented by three plays) and Sophocles (by two) are also the subjects of critical casebooks that include introductions, performance illustrations, and extensive critical commentaries.
Anton Chekhov [the anthology includes his story "The Lady with the Pet Dog"]
David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice: 1976; [also: excerpts from an interview with Hwang]
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House: 1679; [also: excerpts from letters by Ibsen and a student paper on the play]
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman: 1763; [also: Miller's essay "Tragedy and the Common Man"]
William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice: 1368; Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: 1472; Midsummer Night's Dream: 1592; [also: eleven critical commentaries and a student paper on Shakespeare's plays]
Sophocles, Oedipus the King: 1285; Antigonê: 1324; [also: four introductory discussions and six critical commentaries on Sophocles's plays]
Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie: 1836; [also: Williams's notes on staging the play]
August Wilson, Fences: 1996; [also: a comment by Wilson]

Representative Authors in Fiction Poetry and Drama

"Most of the works studied in the course were written originally in English, including pieces by African, Australian, Canadian, and West Indian authors" (p. 46). Chinua Achebe, "Dead Men's Path": 462
Anjana Appachana, "The Prophecy": 465
Margaret Atwood, "Happy Endings": 476; "You fit into me": 788; "Siren Song": 1079
Jamaica Kincaid, "Girl": 578
Jhumpa Lahiri, "Interpreter of Maladies": 579
Irving Layton, "The Bull Calf": 1134
Alice Munro, "How I Met My Husband": 207
Derek Walcott, "The Virgins": 1178
The Anthology also contains works by a number of other major multicultural authors writing in English. Aaron Abeyta, "thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla": 963
Francisco X. Alarcón, "The X in My Name": 940
Anjana Appachana, "The Prophecy": 465
James Baldwin, "Sonny's Blues": 43
Gwendolyn Brooks, "We Real Cool": 833; "The Mother": 1089; "The Sermon": 1090
Sandra Cisneros, "The House on Mango Street": 525
Lucille Clifton, "Homage to My Hips": 1095
Countee Cullen, "For I Lady I Know": 675
Rita Dove, "Silos": 755; "The Darker Face of the Earth": 1886
Marisa de los Santos, "Perfect Dress": 1100
Ralph Ellison, "Battle Royal": 526
Louise Erdrich, "Indian Boarding School: The Runaways": 1106
Rhina Espaillat," "Bilingual/Bilingüe": 937
Dagoberto Gilb, "Look on the Bright Side": 540
Ha Jin, "Saboteur": 178
Langston Hughes (see Critical Casebook: 1030–1048)
Zora Neale Hurston, "Sweat": 558
David Henry Hwang, "The Sound of a Voice": 1976
Kobayashi Issa, "Cricket": 752;"only one guy": 752
Suji Kwock Kim, "Monologue for an Onion": 684
Ethridge Knight, "Making jazz swing": 753
Yusef Komunyakaa, "Facing It": 942
Jhumpa Lahiri, "Interpreter of Maladies": 579
Yiyun Li, "A Thousand Years of Good Prayers": 262
Shirley Geok-lin Lim, "Learning to Love America": 946 "Riding into California": 1137
Suiko Matsushita, "Rain shower from mountain": 752
Claude McKay, "America": 938
Arikida Moritake, "The falling flower": 750
N. Scott Momday, "Simile": 772
Marilyn Nelson, "A Strange Beautiful Woman": 1144
Yone Noguchi, a selection of hokku: 1146
Wilfred Owen, "'Dulce et Decorum Est': 1148; Anthem for Doomed Youth": 1148; "War Poetry": 700
Dudley Randall, "A Different Image": 1155
Run DMC, "Peter Piper": 800
Jean Toomer, "Reapers": 749
Benjamin Alire Sáenz, "To the Desert": 679
Carole Satyamurti, "I Shall Paint My Nails Red": 890
Milcha Sanchez-Scott, "The Cuban Swimmer": 1739
Leslie Marmon Silko, "The Man to Send Rain Clouds": 646
Cathy Song, "Stamp Collecting": 1168
Amy Tan, "A Pair of Tickets": 137
Amy Uyematsu, "Deliberate": 941
Gina Valdés, "English con Salsa": 725
Hakuro Wada, "even the croaking of frogs": 752
Alice Walker, "Everyday Use": 443
August Wilson, "Fences" 1996
Bernice Zamora, "Penitents": 1191
"Some works in translation may also be included (e.g., Greek tragedies, Russian or Latin American fiction)" (p. 46) Jorge Luis Borges, "The Gospel According to Mark": 485
Anton Chekhov, "The Lady with the Pet Dog": 512
Gabriel García Márquez, "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World": 526
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House: 1679
Octavio Paz, "My Life with the Wave": 642
Sophocles, Oedipus the King: 1285; Antigonê: 1324
Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America: 968
(original texts and translations)
Sor Juana: 970 (2)
Pablo Neruda: 971, 973
Jorge Luis Borges: 974, 975
Octavio Paz: 977 (2)
César Vallejo: 979
José Emilio Pacheco: 981
Francisco Hernández: 981
Tedi López Mills: 982
Students "also become aware of literary tradition and the complex ways in which imaginative literature builds upon the ideas, works, and authors of earlier times" (p. 46) Horace, "Carpe Diem" (Latin text): 956; translations by E. A. Robinson (957), James Michie (957), A. E. Stallings (958)
Omar Khayyam, "Rubai" (Persian text): 958; translations by Edward FitzGerald (959), Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah (959), Dick Davis (959)
Sophocles, Oedipus the King: 1285
Rita Dove, The Darker Face of the Earth: 1886

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