Lesson Plans

Psychology, 6th Edition ©2000

by Wade, Tavris

Week 14

Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence


Performance Objectives:

  • Define thinking as a mental process in the understanding and manipulation of information.
  • Describe the process of concept formation.
  • Describe the steps involved in the problem-solving process, providing examples of how algorithms, heuristics, and insight are used in problem solving.
  • Explain the use of creative thinking in problem solving.
  • Describe the development of measuring intelligence.
  • Analyze the obstacles that inhibit problem solving and decision making.
  • Explain the influence of language on thought and behavior.

Resources:

  • Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence—pp. 305–345
  • Study Guide and Practice Tests—pp. 241–268
  • Instructor's Resource Manual—pp. 305–349
  • Test Bank—pp. 197–222

Pacing Guide:

  • Thought: Using What We Know—day 1
  • Reasoning Rationally—day 2
  • Barriers to Reasoning Rationally—day 3
  • Measuring Intelligence and Dissecting Intelligence—day 4
  • Animal Minds—day 5
  • Block Scheduling
    Combine Thought: Using What We Know and Reasoning Rationally into one block, and give Barriers to Reasoning Rationally another block. Measuring Intelligence and Dissecting Intelligence and Animal Minds should be rolled into one block period.

Key Words:

  • thinking, p. 305
  • concept, p. 306
  • prototype, p. 306
  • cognitive schema, p. 307
  • mental image, p. 307
  • subconscious and nonconscious processes, p. 308
  • reasoning and formal reasoning, p. 310
  • formal and informal reasoning, pp. 310–311
  • algorithm, p. 310
  • deductive and inductive reasoning, pp. 310–311
  • heuristic, p. 312
  • dialectical reasoning, p. 312
  • stages of reflective judgement, pp. 313–315
  • availability heuristic, p. 317
  • avoidance of loss, p. 317
  • confirmation bias, p. 318
  • mental set, p. 320
  • hindsight bias, p. 321
  • cognitive and postdecision dissonance, pp. 321–322
  • intelligence, p. 324
  • factor analysis, p. 324
  • g factor, p. 324
  • psychometrics, p. 325
  • achievement and aptitude tests, p. 325
  • mental age, p. 325
  • intelligence quotient (IQ), p. 325
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, p. 325
  • WAIS, p. 326
  • WISC, p. 326
  • triarchic theory of intelligence, pp. 330–331
  • metacognition, p. 330
  • tacit knowledge, p. 311
  • theory of multiple intelligences, p. 331
  • emotional intelligence, p. 332
  • cognitive ethology, p. 337
  • anthropomorphism and anthropocentrism, p. 340
  • convergent versus divergent thinking, p. 341

Critical Thinking Questions:

  1. When you think of a bird, why are you more likely to recall a robin than a penguin?
  2. Mentally speaking, why is making a cake, well, a piece of cake?
  3. Why can't logic solve all our problems?
  4. When people say that all opinions are equally valid, what error are they making?
  5. How might your physician's choice of words about alternative treatments for your illness affect which treatment you choose?
  6. Why will hazing make you more loyal to the group that hazed you?
  7. Is it possible to design intelligence tests that are not influenced by culture?
  8. Can animals think? Explain your answer.

Troubleshooting Tips:

  • In some textbooks, the concept of language gets its own chapter. In this book, language is imbedded throughout the text, and this is one of the chapters with language in it.
  • If you feel rushed, add an extra day to this chapter, splitting the sections on Measuring Intelligence and Dissecting Intelligence.

End-of-Chapter Activity:

Taking Psychology With You: Becoming More Creative (student edition, p. 341)