Brief Review in Global History and Geography

Societal Change in the First Global Age

Document-Based Essay

This task is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents and is based on the accompanying documents (1–7). Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.

Directions: Read the documents in Part A and answer the questions after each document. Then, read the directions for Part B and write your essay.

Type in your answers in the text boxes following each question below. You can then e-mail them to your teacher.

Your first name only:

Your teacher's e-mail address:

Obtain the correct e-mail address from your teacher
(e.g., "teachers_name@somewhere.com")

Historical Context: One issue of the first global age was the desire by the government and the church to control people and people's desire to be free of control.

Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and geography, write an essay in which you discuss the conflict between the desire to control people and people's desire to be free of control in the first global age.

PART A: SHORT ANSWER

Document #1

"All men have certain natural rights: the right to life, liberty and property. The purpose of the government is to protect these rights. If it fails to do so the people may set up a new government."
—John Locke, Natural Rights of Man

1. What does Locke suggest that people should do if governments fail to protect their natural rights?

Document #2

"The royal power is absolute. … The king is not responsible to anyone on earth for his acts. Without this absolute authority, the king could neither do good, nor prevent evil. His power must be such that no one can hope to escape him. … The king is not a private person. He belongs to the public. The will of the people is included in his will. As all perfection and all strength are united in God, so all power of the individual subjects is united in the person of the king."
—Bishop Jacques Louis Bossuet, "Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture"

2. What does Bossuet suggest about the power of the king?

Document #3

  1. The pope does not have the power to remove a man's obligation to pay a penalty for committing a sin except for those penalties which the pope himself imposed.
  2. The preachers of indulgences, who say that buying a certificate of indulgence from the pope or his representatives frees a man from all punishment, are wrong.
  3. It is certain that when the money rattles in the chest, greed and gain may increase, but the forgiveness of sins can come from God alone.
  4. Why does not the pope, who has enormous riches, build St. Peter's with his own money rather than the money of poor believers?

—From Martin Luther's 95 Theses (1517)

3. What practices of the church is Martin Luther questioning in this excerpt from his 95 Theses?

Document #4

"From this the question arises whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved. The reply is, that one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved … for it may be said of men in general that they are ungrateful, … anxious to avoid danger, and greedy. … Men find it easier to attack one who makes himself loved than one who makes himself feared. …
     A prince … must imitate the fox and the lion, for the lion cannot protect himself from traps, and the fox cannot defend himself from wolves. One must therefore be a fox to recognize traps, and a lion to frighten wolves. … Therefore, a wise ruler ought not keep his word when by so doing it would be against his interest. … If men were all good, this [rule] would not be a good one; but as they are bad, and would not be honest with you, so you are not bound to keep your word with them. …"
—Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince (1513)

4. Why does Machiavelli believe that men must be controlled?

Document #5

I, John, by the grace of God, King of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons … and his faithful people:

  1. … grant that the English church shall be free, and shall hold its rights and liberties uninjured.

We grant moreover to all free men of our kingdom … all the liberties written below …

  1. Earls and barons shall be fined only by their peers, and only in proportion to their offense.
  2. No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or dispossessed, or outlawed, or banished … except by legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.
  3. To no one will we sell, to no one will we deny, or delay the right or justice.

—Magna Carta, signed by King John (June 15, 1215)

5. According to the document, what limits does King John place on his authority as king of England?

Document #6

printing press

6. How did the printing press contribute to the spread of ideas?

Document #7

  1. Japanese ships shall not be sent abroad.
  2. No Japanese shall be sent abroad. Anyone breaking this law shall suffer the penalty of death. …
  3. All Japanese living abroad shall be put to death when they return home.
  4. All Christians shall be examined by official examiners.
  5. Informers against Christians shall be rewarded.
  6. The arrival of foreign ships must be reported to Edo [Tokyo] and watch kept over them.
  7. Those who spread Christianity shall be jailed. …

—Japanese laws (1634)

7. How did the Japanese government seek to limit the freedom of Japan's people?

PART B: ESSAY

Directions: Using information from the documents provided and your knowledge of United States history, write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Historical Context: One issue of the first global age was the desire by the government and the church to control people and people's desire to be free of control.

Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and geography, write an essay in which you:

Discuss the conflict between the desire to control people and people's desire to be free of control in the first global age.

Guidelines: When writing your essay, be sure to

  • address all aspects of the Task by accurately analyzing and interpreting at least four documents.
  • incorporate information from the documents in the body of the essay.
  • incorporate relevant outside information throughout the essay.
  • richly support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details.
  • write a well-developed essay that consistently demonstrates a logical and clean plan of organization.
  • introduce the theme by establishing a framework that is beyond a simple restatement of the Task or Historical Context and conclude the essay with a summation of the theme.

When you're done, your answers to your teacher.