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America: Pathways to the Present, Grade 11

Unit 4: Boom Times to Hard Times

Benchmark Test

Click on the button next to the response that best answers the question. For best results, review America: Pathways to the Present, Modern American History, chapters 13–16.

You may take the test as many times as you like. When you are happy with your results, you may e-mail your results to your teacher. Please obtain your teacher's permission before e-mailing.

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1. Use the quote and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

"Breezy, slangy, and informal in manner; slim and boyish in form; covered in silk and fur that clung to her as close as onion skin; with carmined [vivid red] cheeks and lips, plucked eyebrows and close-fitting helmet of hair; gay, plucky and confident."
—Preston Slosson, The Great Crusade and After, 1930

What can be inferred from the writer's description of a flapper?
A All women became flappers in the in the 1920s.
B Flappers held traditional views of how women should dress and behave.
C Flappers symbolized the changing role of women in American society.
D Women had no effect on social change in the 1920s.

2. Charles A. Lindbergh became one of the most famous heroes of the 1920s because he was the first person to
A swim across the English Channel.
B hit 60 home runs in a season.
C fly nonstop from New York to Paris.
D fly solo from Hawaii to California.

3. Which aspect of the culture of the 1920s caused the era to adopt the title "the Jazz Age"?
A newspapers
B movies
C music
D books

4. Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Alain Locke contributed to American culture by
A composing jazz music.
B writing about the African American experience.
C creating a board game called Monopoly®.
D painting realistic scenes of American life.

5. Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

Title: African American Demographics; 1860: stacked bar indicating 7% in the North, 93% in the South; 1910: stacked bar indicating 11% in the North, 89% in the South; 1930: stacked bar indicating 20% in the North, 80% in the South

Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the graph?
A Between 1860 and 1930, many African Americans migrated to the North.
B Between 1860 and 1930, African American population declined.
C In 1910, more than half of African Americans worked in factories.
D By 1930, most African Americans lived in the North.

6. Use the flow chart and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

A chart titled: The Scopes Trial. This chart has 5 text boxes connected by arrows. The first text box says: Theory of evolution begins gaining acceptance among many Americans. The second text box says: Many religious leaders argue evolution contradicts history of creation as stated in Bible and support laws banning teaching of evolution in public schools. The third box says: Tennessee passes law against teaching evolution. The fourth box says: Tennessee science teacher John T. Scopes breaks state law by teaching evolution to his students. The fifth box says: Jury finds Scopes guilty, fines him $100. Case causes nationwide debate between Americans holding modern beliefs and those supporting traditional beliefs.

On what constitutional basis did John Scopes challenge Tennessee law?
A right to a fair trial
B freedom of speech
C equal protection of the laws
D protection from unreasonable searches

7. Use the quote and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

"It is impossible to tell whether Prohibition is a good thing or a bad thing. It has never been enforced in this country. . . . I will concede that the saloon was odious [offensive], but we now have delicatessen stores, pool rooms, drug stores, millinery shops, private parlors, and 57 other varieties of speakeasies selling liquor and flourishing."
Fiorello La Guardia, 1926

With which statement would Fiorello La Guardia likely agree?
A Prohibition should be repealed because it was not successful.
B Prohibition should not be repealed because it did away with saloons.
C Prohibition reduced crime and eliminated drunkenness.
D Prohibition had no effect on American society.

8. Marcus Garvey was the leader of a movement to
A encourage young Americans to rebel against popular culture.
B protest the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
C build up African Americans' self-respect and economic power.
D increase the membership and influence of labor unions.

9. Henry Ford made automobiles available for mass consumption by
A encouraging customers to pay by installment plan.
B producing cars in a wide variety of styles and colors.
C raising the price of the Model T.
D adapting the assembly line for his factories.

10. Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer questions 10 and 11.

A bar graph titled: Immigration to the United States, 1921 and 1926. The graph has 10 bars. There are five regional categories, each showing two bars, one for 1921 and one for 1926. The first region is Northwestern Europe. It shows that 125,000 people emigrated from Northwestern Europe to the U.S. in 1921, and 75,000 people emigrated to the U.S. in 1926. The second region is Central Europe. It shows that 175,000 people emigrated from Central Europe to the U.S. in 1921, and 65,000 emigrated to the U.S. in 1926. The third region is Eastern Europe. It shows that 45,000 people emigrated from Eastern Europe to the U.S. in 1921, and between 5,000 and 10,000 emigrated to the U.S. in 1926. The fourth region is Southern Europe. It shows that 300,000 people emigrated from Southern Europe to the U.S. in 1921, and 15,000 emigrated to the U.S. in 1926. The fifth region is Asia. It shows that 25,000 people emigrated from Asia to the U.S. in 1921, and between 1,000 and 5,000 emigrated to the U.S. in 1926.

Based on the graph, what was the fundamental trend in immigration to the United States from 1921 to 1926?
A Immigration from all regions decreased.
B Immigration from all regions increased.
C Immigration from Asia increased more than that from other regions.
D Immigration from Northwestern Europe decreased more than that from other regions.

11. What is the most likely reason for the trend indicated in the graph?
A quotas on immigration
B lack of opportunities in the United States
C strong economies in Europe and Asia
D growth of suburbs in the United States

12. Use the information in the box and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

  1. Calvin Coolidge
  2. Franklin D. Roosevelt  
  3. Herbert Hoover
  4. Warren G. Harding

In which order did these men serve as President of the United States?
A 4, 3, 2, 1
B 1, 3, 2, 4
C 3, 4, 1, 2
D 4, 1, 3, 2

13. President Calvin Coolidge helped fuel the economic prosperity of the 1920s by
A imposing government controls on business.
B leaving business alone and allowing it to grow.
C lowering tariffs to promote foreign trade.
D increasing corporate income taxes.

14. The year 1929 is a significant date because it marked the beginning of the
A Dust Bowl.
B Great Depression.
C New Deal.
D Harlem Renaissance.

15. Compared with other regions, the Great Plains experienced the worst effects of severe weather in the 1930s because
A more people lived there.
B the region was not suited for farming.
C people who lived there were not used to severe weather.
D farming practices had damaged the environment.

16. Use the information in the box and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Bank failures
  • Decline in agricultural prices
  • Overspeculation

Which of the following can be added to the list of causes?
A unemployment
B failure of Congress to reduce import taxes
C strong international economy
D overconsumption of goods

17. Use the diagram and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

This chart is titled: Effects of the Depression. It has six text boxes surrounding a text box in the middle that says: The Great Depression. The first text box says: Increase in homelessness. The second text box says: Urban families crowd into small apartments. The third text box says: Many men feel sense of failure. The fourth text box says: Farmers lose their farms, many move west. The fifth text box says: Competition for work causes racial tensions. The sixth text box says: Many children suffer effects of poor diet.

The diagram indicates that the Great Depression caused
A a greater effect on farmers than on factory workers.
B social as well as economic effects.
C little change in family life.
D more problems in the East than in the West.

18. Use the map and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

A map of the Election of 1932. It shows that Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dem.) had 22,821,857 votes to Herber Hoover's (Rep.) 15,761,841 votes. The map shows that Roosevelt won by 7 million votes, and won every state except for Pennsylvania, Delaware, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.

What conclusion can be drawn from the map?
A Most people supported Hoover's policies.
B Hoover's support came mostly from agricultural regions.
C Many people blamed Hoover for the Depression.
D Roosevelt's promise of "a new deal" had little effect on the election.

19. New Deal programs helped raise the standard of living in rural America by
A giving farmers the right to organize.
B helping to bring electricity to rural regions.
C lending money to banks.
D restoring parks and forests.

20. Use the table and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

the chart is titled: New Deal Agencies. It has seven rows and two columns. The first row, first column says: Agency. The first row, second column says: Purpose. The second row says: Civilian Conservation Corps; purpose: to provide jobs to young men to work on environmental conservation projects. The third row says: Works Progress administration; purpose: to give unemployed people work in building construction and art projects. The fourth row says: Public Works Administration; purpose: to sponsor massive public works projects such as dams. The fifth row says: National Recovery Administration; purpose: to work with industries to ensure fair business and labor practices. The sixth row says: National Labor Relations Board; purpose: to enforce the rights of workers and unions. The seventh row says: Federal Deposit and Insurance Corporation; purpose: to insure people's bank deposits up to $5,000.

Which New Deal program continues to affect the lives of U.S. citizens today by insuring people's savings accounts?
A Social Security Administration
B Civilian Conservation Corps
C National Labor Relations Board
D Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation