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America: Pathways to the Present, Grade 11

Unit 5: Hot and Cold War

Benchmark Test

Click on the button next to the response that best answers the question. For best results, review America: Pathways to the Present, Modern American History, chapters 17–20.

You may take the test as many times as you like. When you are happy with your results, you may e-mail your results to your teacher. Please obtain your teacher's permission before e-mailing.


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1. Use the information in the box and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

Rise of Dictators
DictatorCountryIdeology
Benito MussoliniItalyFascism
Adolf HitlerGermanyNazism
Francisco FrancoSpainFascism
Josef StalinSoviet UnionCommunism

What did these governments have in common?
A They were based on the same philosophy.
B They guaranteed individual rights.
C They were totalitarian.
D They followed a policy of isolationism.


2. The immediate cause for United States entry into World War II was
A Germany's invasion of Poland.
B Germany's bombings of Great Britain.
C Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
D Japan's invasion of Manchuria.


3. During which time period did the United States fight in World War II?
A 1914–1918
B 1929–1933
C 1941–1945
D 1945–1960


4. Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer questions 4 and 5.

There are two line graphs, and the title is: The Wartime Workers. The first graph shows unemployment figures from 1940 to 1945. The unemployment rate went from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1945. The second graph shows wages from 1940 to 1945. Average weekly earnings went from almost $30 in 1940 to almost $48 in 1945.

Which statement accurately describes the economic effects of World War II indicated on these graphs?
A Unemployment dropped dramatically and wages increased.
B Unemployment and wages increased steadily.
C Unemployment and wages declined steadily.
D Unemployment and wages declined dramatically.


5. What conclusion can be drawn from the data on these graphs?
A World War II prolonged the effects of the Great Depression.
B World War II brought an end to the Great Depression.
C World War II had little effect on the U.S. economy.
D World War II caused a severe economic downturn.


6. Which of these events happened last?
A surrender of Germany
B D-Day invasion at Normandy
C bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
D bombing of Pearl Harbor


7. Use the quote and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

"General Marshall then estimated that, since the Japanese would unquestionably fight even more fiercely than ever on their own homeland, we would probably lose a quarter of a million men and possibly as many as a half million in taking the two islands. I could not bear this thought, and it led to the decision to use the atomic bomb."
Harry S Truman

According to the quote, President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan was based on a
A need to punish the Japanese for Pearl Harbor.
B desire to reduce potential American casualties.
C lack of alternative plans.
D chance to demonstrate U.S. military power.


8. Which group, formed in the 1940s, led the way for the nonviolent techniques used in the civil rights movement of the next decade?
A America First Committee
B War Refugee Board (WRB)
C American Liberty League
D Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)


9. The bracero program increased the Latino population of Los Angeles and other southern California cities by bringing in Mexican laborers to
A serve in the armed forces.
B help relieve the shortage of farm workers.
C work in defense plants.
D build highways.


10. Use the quote and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

"Though I have found no Negroes who want to see the United Nations lose this war, I have found many who, before the war ends, want to see the stuffing knocked out of white supremacy. . . . If freedom and equality are not vouchsafed [granted] the peoples of color, the war for democracy will not be won . . . We demand the abolition of segregation and discrimination in . . . [all] branches of national defense."
A. Philip Randolph, 1942

To expand opportunities and rights in American society, A. Philip Randolph argues that the United States must
A provide jobs for African Americans in defense plants.
B allow African Americans to enlist in the army.
C encourage African American migration to the North.
D end segregation in the armed forces.


11. President Roosevelt tried to achieve equality in the United States by signing an Executive Order that
A opened jobs and training in defense plants to all Americans.
B closed Japanese internment camps.
C ended segregation in the armed forces.
D ended discrimination in housing.


12. Use the map and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

This is a map titled: African American Migration, 1940-1945. It shows that southern states had a significant decrease in African American population, and northern states had an increase in African American population.

Which demographic pattern is supported by the data shown on this map?
A an increase in African American population in northern states
B an increase in African American population in southern states
C a decrease in African American population in western states
D a decrease in African American population in northern states


13. Which U.S. response to Soviet aggression after World War II called on the United States to take a leading role in supporting free people around the world?
A Marshall Plan
B Truman Doctrine
C North Atlantic Treaty Organization
D Berlin airlift


14. One effect of the Korean War was a(n)
A unified Korea.
B end to Communist aggression in Asia.
C huge increase in U.S. military spending.
D alliance between the United States and China.


15. Which of the following spread suspicion and fear of communism?
A GI Bill of Rights
B Sputnik I
C National Defense Education Act
D McCarthyism


16. One effect of the postwar population growth was a
A decline in home construction.
B growth of suburbs.
C migration to cities.
D decrease in automobile sales.


17. What scientific discovery by Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis in 1954 improved the quality of life in America and throughout the world?
A polio vaccine
B penicillin
C nuclear power
D antibiotics for penicillin-resistant bacteria


18. Use the quote and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

"It was unquestioned gospel [in the 1950s] that women could identify with nothing beyond the home—not politics, not art, not science, not events large or small, war or peace, in the United States or the world, unless it could be approached through female experience as a wife or mother or translated into domestic detail!"
—Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique

What is Friedan criticizing in this quote?
A culture that makes it difficult for women to choose alternative roles
B women who work outside the home
C men who expect their wives to work outside the home
D women who are dissatisfied with their lives


19. Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer questions 19 and 20.

The graph is titled: Female Labor Force, 1900-1960. This graph shows the numbers of married and unmarried women in the labor force from 1900 to 1960. In 1900 there were approximately 3 million unmarried, and 1 million married women in the labor force. In 1910 that number was almost 5 million unmarried, and 2 million married women in the labor force. In 1920 that number was 6.5 million unmarried, and 2 million married women in the labor force. In 1930 that number was 5.5 million unmarried and 3 million married women in the labor force. In 1940 that number was 6.5 million unmarried and 4.3 million married women in the labor force. In 1950 that number was 5.3 million unmarried and 8.2 million married women in the labor force. In 1960 that number was 5.3 million unmarried and 13.8 million married women in the labor force.

What change occurred in the female labor force between 1940 and 1950?
A The total number of women in the workforce declined.
B The number of married women in the workforce declined.
C Married women in the workforce outnumbered single women.
D Single women in the workforce outnumbered married women.


20. What is the most likely reason for the changes in the female labor force reflected on the graph?
A After World War II, women were not interested in working outside the home.
B After World War II, fewer women got married.
C A poor economy in the postwar years made it necessary for women to work outside the home.
D Women who had worked outside the home during World War II were reluctant to give up their jobs.