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America: Pathways to the Present, Grade 11

Unit 6: A Period of Turmoil and Change

Benchmark Test

Click on the button next to the response that best answers the question. For best results, review America: Pathways to the Present, Modern American History, chapters 21–24.

You may take the test as many times as you like. When you are happy with your results, you may e-mail your results to your teacher. Please obtain your teacher's permission before e-mailing.

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1. Use the timeline and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

A timeline titled: Civil Rights Milestones. There are 4 items on the timeline. The first item reads: 1947: Jackie Robinson becomes first African American to play in major league baseball. The second item reads: 1954: Supreme Court issues Brown v. Board of Education ruling, stating that segregated schools are unconstitutional. The third item reads: 1955-1956: Montgomery bus boycott protests segregation on city buses; Supreme Court rules bus segregation unconstitutional. The fourth item reads: 1957: Eisenhower uses National Guard to enforce desegregation of schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Which of the following events in the Civil Rights movement led to the showdown between Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus and President Eisenhower regarding the integration of a high school?
A the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education
B the Montgomery bus boycott
C Jackie Robinson's admittance into baseball's major leagues
D the Supreme Court's ruling that bus segregation is illegal

2. How did the decision in Brown v. Board of Education differ from that in Plessy v. Ferguson with regard to segregation?
A Brown v. Board of Education established that segregation in public education was unconstitutional; Plessy v. Ferguson established that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal.
B Brown v. Board of Education required the separation of blacks and whites in schools; Plessy v. Ferguson established that all segregation was unconstitutional.
C Brown v. Board of Education established that private schools could not discriminate against black students; Plessy v. Ferguson established that public schools could not discriminate.
D Brown v. Board of Education decided that school busing was unconstitutional; Plessy v. Ferguson established that city buses could not discriminate by requiring blacks to sit in the back.

3. What civil rights leader planned a series of nonviolent marches in Birmingham, Alabama and was put in jail?
A Robert Moses
B Martin Luther King, Jr.
C Malcolm X
D Stokely Carmichael

4. What bill was the March on Washington in 1963 organized to support?
A The Fifteenth Amendment
B The Voting Rights Act
C The Twenty-fourth Amendment
D Kennedy's civil rights bill

5. What effect did the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., have on the civil rights movement?
A More African Americans came to believe in nonviolent protests.
B Many African Americans lost faith in the idea of nonviolence.
C Rioting broke out in northern cities.
D Most African Americans turned to a new leader, Malcolm X.

6. How did John F. Kennedy benefit from the first televised presidential debates?
A He was featured in commercials during breaks in the debate.
B He was able to show his relaxed and confident manner.
C He was able to show charts outlining his policies.
D He was able to show a video of a man landing on the moon.

7. How did the war in Vietnam affect Johnson's Great Society programs?
A The military spending strengthened the economy so that the programs were no longer needed.
B Concern over the war made the programs even stronger.
C People demanded even more programs than Johnson had outlined.
D The war drained the federal budget to such an extent that many programs were undermined.

8. Use the chart and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

A chart titled: The Warren Court. This chart has four sections. Each section describes a Supreme Court case. The first section reads: Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Ruling: Evidence seized illegally cannot be used in a trial. The second section reads: Gideon v. Wainright (1963), Ruling: Persons facomg a felony charge who cannot afford a lawyer have the right to free legal aid. The third section reads: Escobedo v. Illinois (1964), Ruling: Individuals accused of a crime must be given access to an attorney while being questioned. The fourth section reads: Miranda v. Arizona (1966), Ruling: Police must inform accused persons of their rights before questioning them.]

What right was mandated with the Miranda rule?
A The right to free legal aid for suspects.
B The right to a jury of one's peers.
C An accused person's right to be informed of his or her rights before being questioned by authorities.
D The right to have an attorney present during questioning.

9. How did Kennedy's Alliance for Progress differ from the Peace Corps?
A The Alliance for Progress focused on nuclear testing, while the Peace Corps focused on feeding the world.
B The Alliance for Progress was aimed at communist countries while the Peace Corps was aimed at Latin American countries.
C The Alliance for Progress was established to help people in different countries, while the Peace Corps was established to help only businesses.
D The Alliance for Progress called on countries to help provide basic necessities for people in the Americas, while the Peace Corps called on individual volunteers to help in countries worldwide.

10. How did President Johnson first deal with the Vietnam conflict?
A He sent advisers and money to the South Vietnamese military.
B He sent the Peace Corps to North Vietnam.
C He declared war against North Vietnam.
D He convinced North and South Vietnam to sign a peace treaty.

11. Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

A graph titled: Median Incomes of Men and Women. This graph shows the median income for men and women from 1950 to 1975. In 1950 the median income for men was $1,300/year; for women it was $800/year. In 1955 the median income for men was $1,800/year; for women it was $1,000. In 1960 the median income for men was $2,400/year; for women it was $1,200/year. In 1965 the median income for men was $3,100/year; for women it was $1,700/year. In 1970 the median income for men was $4,400/year; for women it was $2,100/year. In 1975 the median income for men was $6,500/year; for women it was $4,000/year.

On average, did women make a higher percentage of men's salary in 1975 than they did in 1955?
A No, women made the exact same percentage of men's salaries.
B No, women made a lower percentage of men's salaries.
C Yes, women made a slightly higher percentage of men's salaries.
D Yes, women made nearly the same amount as men.

12. What actions did Latino farm workers, led by César Chávez, take to improve conditions for migrant farm workers?
A violent protests at government centers
B burning farmers' fields
C boycotts against California grape growers
D leaving the country

13. What laws did the government pass as a result of the American Indian Movement?
A laws that gave public lands to Native Americans
B laws that offered paid compensation to all Native Americans
C laws guaranteeing employment to Native Americans
D laws allowing self-determination and improved educational facilities

14. What was one major characteristic of the counterculture during the 1960s and 1970s?
A identifying with the poor and downtrodden
B identifying with corporate culture
C strict adherence to conservative fashion
D avoidance of drug use

15. How did Ralph Nader use the right of free speech to help improve the safety of products in the United States?
A He picketed businesses that had unsafe products.
B He and volunteers wrote reports on the safety of products for consumers to read.
C He wrote a book called Silent Spring that reported cost-cutting measures by companies.
D He established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor the safety of nuclear power plants.

16. What led to the Communist control of North Vietnam after World War II?
A Citizens voted for a new government in a national election.
B China invaded Vietnam.
C Nationalist forces drove the French colonial government out.
D Citizens boycotted French products.

17. Use the map and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

Map titled: Vietnam, 1968. This map shows the separation of the country of Vietnam into the northern part and the southern part. The country is bordered by China in the north, the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea to the East, Laos to the Northwest, and Cambodia to the Southwest.

Traveling from North Vietnam, the Viet Cong passed through which of the following two neighboring countries to infiltrate South Vietnam?
A Thailand and Cambodia
B Cambodia and Laos
C China and Burma
D Laos and China

18. The United States used a herbicide called Agent Orange in Vietnam for deforestation. How might that have helped the U.S. in the war?
A Agent Orange could limit the Viet Cong's ability to grow food.
B Agent Orange could set off Viet Cong booby traps.
C Agent Orange could help farmers in South Vietnam grow more crops.
D Agent Orange could kill trees and expose the Viet Cong in their jungle hideouts.

19. What rights were people exercising when they held "teach-ins" during the Vietnam War?
A the rights to free assembly and free speech
B the rights to bear arms and to remain silent
C the rights to vote and run for political office
D the rights to a fair trial and a jury of their peers

20. President Nixon eventually pulled all United States troops out of Vietnam. What happened to South Vietnam then?
A It joined forces with Cambodia and became part of that country.
B It conquered the North Vietnamese invaders.
C It was conquered by the North Vietnamese and Vietnam was reunited.
D It remained a separate country and the fighting goes on to this day.