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World History: Connections to Today, Grade 10

Unit 5: Enlightenment and Revolution

Benchmark Test

Click on the button next to the response that best answers the question. For best results, review World History: Connections to Today, Survey, chapters 18–21.

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1. Which of the following statements correctly compares the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
A Hobbes believed in absolute monarchy and Rousseau believed that the people should make the laws.
B Hobbes believed in federalism and Rousseau believed in dictatorship.
C Hobbes believed in laissez faire and Rousseau believed in mercantilism.
D Hobbes believed in limited democracy and Rousseau believed in rule by divine right.

2. Analyze the chart and use your social studies skills to answer the following question.

A chart showing the growth of population in European countries between 1700 and 1850. The chart has six rows, with five columns each. The chart is labeled: Population (in millions). The first row says: Years, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850. The second row says: Belgium, 1.75, 2.25, 3.25, 4.50. The third row says: Britain, 5.75, 6.00, 9.25, 18.00. The fourth row says: France, 22.00. 24.00, 29.00, 36.00. The fifth row says: Germany, 13.00, 15.00, 18.00, 27.00. The sixth row says: Italy, 13.00, 15.00, 19.00, 25.00.

Based on the chart, select the statement that accurately describes the effects of the agricultural revolution in Europe from 1700 to 1850.
A The populations of Belgium and Italy decreased.
B The populations of France and Italy more than doubled.
C The population of Germany was cut in half.
D The population of Britain tripled.

3. The Declaration of Independence argued that government should protect the natural rights of the people. This idea was incorporated into
A the establishment of the Supreme Court.
B setting up the national bank.
C trade agreements with Britain.
D the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution.

4. Analyze the cartoon and use your knowledge of history to answer the following question.

Cartoon of Napoleon's legs stretching over his empire

Based on the cartoon, what do the falling staff and globe and Napoleon's stretching legs show?
A He has expanded the borders of his empire too far and is losing control of it.
B His grand empire stretches across Europe and the Pacific Ocean.
C He is changing his government from central control to regional control.
D He is walking a tightrope and falling off of it.

5. Use the timeline and your social studies skills to answer the following question.

A timeline on the Age of Reason. The timeline starts in 1680, and ends in 1800. The important dates are: 1688: Revolution in England, 1690: Locke's Two Treatises of Government is published, 1707: England and Scotland unite, 1762: Rousseau publishes The Social Contract, 1776: The American Revolution begins, 1783: Treaty of Paris ends the American Revolution, 1785: Russian Charter of Nobility is signed guaranteeing serfdom, 1787: The Dutch Revolution begins, 1789: The French Revolution begins.

A The French Revolution affected the American Revolution.
B Rousseau's The Social Contract affected the revolution in England.
C Russian society was not moving toward democracy.
D The unification of England and Scotland resulted in the English Revolution.

6. Which important events occurred in North America in 1776 and 1787, respectively?
A The French and Indian War ended and the American Revolution began.
B The Declaration of Independence was approved and the federal government was established.
C The British stopped taxing the colonists and free trade was established.
D The triangular trade ended and slavery was abolished.

7. The King of England allowed each colony to elect its own legislature because he
A wanted to help create a republican form of government.
B maintained enough control by appointing the governors of each colony.
C was afraid that the colonists might rebel.
D was able to control the elections by choosing the candidates.

8. During the American Revolution, General George Washington was a leader of the
A British loyalists.
B Southern abolitionists.
C American patriots.
D New England merchants.

9. Thomas Jefferson played a significant role during the American Revolution by
A writing Common Sense.
B leading the army of Virginia.
C writing the Declaration of Independence.
D being commander in chief of the United States armed forces.

10. Which of the following statements is accurate?
A The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan were the basis of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.
B The Bill of Rights established the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan.
C The Articles of Confederation established a loosely connected nation of 13 independent states.
D Shays' Rebellion and the Boston Tea Party motivated the founding fathers to write the Bill of Rights.

11. The radical period of the French Revolution was characterized by
A all men and women winning the right to vote.
B the Huguenots gaining political power.
C Maximilien Robespierre being crowned king.
D violence and political reform.

12. United States President Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. Use your knowledge of history to decide which of the following was a contributing factor in Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana.
A The people in Louisiana could not speak French.
B The successful slave revolt and war for independence in Haiti weakened Napoleon's empire.
C France lost too much money with the decline of the fur trade.
D Jefferson threatened to take Louisiana by force if Napoleon refused to sell it to the United States.

13. Place the following quote by Simón Bolívar with the ideology that it represents.

"More than anyone, I desire to see America fashioned into the greatest nation in the world…"

A conservative
B monarchist
C nationalist
D liberal

14. Napoleon improved transportation by
A building dikes.
B building roads and canals.
C creating a network of European railroads.
D eliminating tolls on roads and bridges.

15. Which Spanish-speaking country was the first in Latin America to fight for independence from Spain?
A Venezuela
B Dominican Republic
C Mexico
D El Salvador

16. The standard of living in Europe rose due to improved farming methods, increased food production, and the invention of the steam engine. These improvements were causes of the
A Crusades.
B Industrial Revolution.
C Protestant Reformation.
D French Revolution.

17. Which of the following was a result of the revolutions of 1848?
A Many Europeans immigrated to the Americas.
B Many Asians immigrated to Europe.
C Many Europeans immigrated to Asia.
D Many Asians immigrated to Africa.

18. A technological innovation that developed in England during the Industrial Revolution and spread to North America was
A interchangeable parts.
B the steam engine.
C the cotton gin.
D the printing press.

19. Which of the following are examples of technological innovations that aided the Industrial Revolution?
A compass, tractor, and telescope
B microscope, compass, and dikes
C spinning machines, railroads, and steel
D coal, tractor, and dikes

20. How did urbanization influence patterns of settlement in the cities?
A The middle class lived crowded in the center of town and the poor lived outside of town.
B The middle class lived in homes away from the factories and mines, while the poor lived in crowded buildings near their places of work.
C The poor lived on farms and traveled to the city daily for work, while the middle class lived in the city and didn't have to travel to work.
D The poor lived in basement rooms below the factories and the middle class lived in tenements near the factories.