Pearson, as an active contributor to the biology learning community, is pleased to provide free access to the Classic edition of The Biology Place to all educators and their students.
The purpose of the activities is to help you review material you have already studied in class or have read in your text. Some of the material will extend your knowledge beyond your classwork or textbook reading. At the end of each activity, you can assess your progress through a Self-Quiz.
To begin, click on an activity title.
Lab 2 Enzyme Catalysis
Mitosis and Meiosis
Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
6-I Bacterial Transformation
6-II DNA Electrophoresis
Genetics of Organisms
Population Genetics and Evolution
10-I Cardiovascular Fitness
10-II Heart Rate in Daphnia
Biomembranes I: Membrane Structure and Transport
Biomembranes II: Membrane Dynamics and Communication
Cardiovascular System I: The Beating Heart
Cardiovascular System II: The Vascular Highway
Cell Structure and Function
DNA Structure and Replication
From Gene to Protein: Transcription
From Gene to Protein: Translation (Protein Synthesis)
Plant Structure and Growth
Properties of Biomolecules
Restriction Enzyme Digestion of DNA
The lac Operon in E. coli
Concept 4: Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates, which include the sugars and polysaccharides, have many important functions in biological systems.
Carbohydrates are so named because the structural formula is typically (CH2O)n, where n is an integer such as 5 (C5H10O5), 6 (C6H12O6), etc. Although this formula might suggest that carbon atoms are joined to water, the actual molecules are more complicated.
Like most classes of biological molecules, carbohydrates occur as both monomers and polymers. Small carbohydrates are called sugars, which commonly include monosaccharides (single sugars) and some disaccharides (two sugars linked together). Larger carbohydrates are called polysaccharides (many sugars linked together).
Functions of carbohydrates include:
- serving as precursors for building many polymers
- storing short-term energy
- providing structural building materials
- serving as molecular "tags" to allow recognition of specific cells and molecules