Pearson, as an active contributor to the biology learning community, is pleased to provide free access to the Classic edition of The Biology Place to all educators and their students.
The purpose of the activities is to help you review material you have already studied in class or have read in your text. Some of the material will extend your knowledge beyond your classwork or textbook reading. At the end of each activity, you can assess your progress through a Self-Quiz.
To begin, click on an activity title.
Lab 2 Enzyme Catalysis
Mitosis and Meiosis
Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
6-I Bacterial Transformation
6-II DNA Electrophoresis
Genetics of Organisms
Population Genetics and Evolution
10-I Cardiovascular Fitness
10-II Heart Rate in Daphnia
Biomembranes I: Membrane Structure and Transport
Biomembranes II: Membrane Dynamics and Communication
Cardiovascular System I: The Beating Heart
Cardiovascular System II: The Vascular Highway
Cell Structure and Function
DNA Structure and Replication
From Gene to Protein: Transcription
From Gene to Protein: Translation (Protein Synthesis)
Plant Structure and Growth
Properties of Biomolecules
Restriction Enzyme Digestion of DNA
The lac Operon in E. coli
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
To estimate the frequency of alleles in a population, we can use the Hardy-Weinberg equation. According to this equation:
p = the frequency of the dominant allele (represented here by A)
q = the frequency of the recessive allele (represented here by a)
For a population in genetic equilibrium:
p + q = 1.0 (The sum of the frequencies of both alleles is 100%.)
(p + q)2 = 1
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
The three terms of this binomial expansion indicate the frequencies of the three genotypes:
p2 = frequency of AA (homozygous dominant)
2pq = frequency of Aa (heterozygous)
q2 = frequency of aa (homozygous recessive)
This page contains all the information you need to calculate allelic frequencies when there are two different alleles. You may want to print the page so you can refer back to it as you do the rest of this laboratory.
We start with some sample problems that will give you practice in using the Hardy-Weinberg equation.